Word formation processes: Ways of creating new words in English
1-Coinage: a brand name becomes the name for the item or process associated with the brand name. The word ceases to be capitalized and acts as a normal verb/noun (i.e. takes inflections such as plural or past tense). The companies using the names usually have copyrighted them and object to their use in public documents, so they should be avoided in formal writing (or a lawsuit could follow!) Examples: xerox, kleenex, band-aid, kitty litter,aspirin,nylon,zipper,teflon.
2- Borrowing: a word is taken from another language. It may be adapted to the borrowing language's phonological system to varying degrees. Examples: skunk, tomato (from indigenous languages of the Americas), sushi, taboo, wok (from Pacific Rim languages), chic, shmuck, macho, spaghetti, dirndl, psychology, telephone, physician, education (from European languages), hummus, chutzpah, cipher, artichoke (from Semitic languages), yam, tote, banana (from African languages),alcohol(Arabic),boss(Dutch),croissant((French),lilac(Persian),piano(Italian),pretzel(German),robot(Czech),tycoon(Japanese),yogurt(Turkish),zebra(Bantu) 3-Compounding: joining two or more words into one new word. Examples: skateboard, whitewash, cat lover, self-help, red-hot, bookcase,fingerprint,sunburn,wallpaper,doorknob,textbook,wastebasket,waterbed.
4- Blending: Parts (which are not morphemes!) of two already-existing words are put together to form a new word. Examples: motel (motor hotel) brunch (breakfast & lunch), smog (smoke & fog), telethon (television & marathon), modem (modulator & demodulator), Spanglish (Spanish & &English),gasohol(gasoline&alcohol),bit(binary&digit),telecast(television&broadcast),Chunnel(Channel&tunnel) infotainment(information&entertainment)simulcast(simultaneous&broadcast)telex(teleprinter&exchange)
5-Clipping: shortening of a polysyllabic word. Examples: bro (< brother), pro (< professional), prof (< professor), math (< mathematics), veg (< 'vegetate', as in veg out in front of the TV), sub (< substitute or submarine)fax(facsmile)gas(gasoline)ad(advertisement)bra(brassiere)cab(cabriolet)condo(condominium)fan((fanatic)flu,perm,phone,plane,pram,pub,sitcom(situation comedy),chem,exam,gym,lab,math,phys-ed,poly-sci,prof,typo.
6. Backformation: A suffix identifiable from other words is cut off of a base which has previously not been a word; that base then is used as a root, and becomes a word through widespread use. Examples: pronunciate (< pronunciation < pronounce), resurrect (< resurrection), enthuse (< enthusiasm), self-destruct (< self-destruction < destroy), burgle (< burglar), attrit (< attrition), burger (< hamburger). This differs from clipping in that, in clipping, some phonological part of the word which is not interpretable as an affix or word is cut off (e.g. the '-essor' of 'professor' is not a suffix or word; nor is the '-ther' of 'brother'. In backformation, the bit chopped off is a recognizable affix or word ('ham ' in 'hamburger'), '-ion' in 'self-destruction'. Backformation is the result of a false but plausible morphological analysis of the word; clipping is a strictly phonological process that is used to make the word shorter. Clipping is based on syllable structure, not morphological analysis. It is impossible for you to recognize backformed words or come up with examples from your own knowledge of English, unless you already know the history of the word. Most people do not know the history of the words they know; this is normal. televise(from television)donate(donation)opt(option)emote(emotion)enthuse(enthusiasm)liaise(liaison)babysit(babysitter)editor (edit)sculptor (sculpt)burglars.peddlers,swindlers(burgle,peddle,swindle)------first alonger word is reduced to a single syllable then –y or-ie is added to the end.it is known as hypocorisms.movie(moving pictures)telly(television)Aussie(Australian)barbie(barbecue)bookie(bookmaker)brekky(breakfast)hankie(handkerchief)
7. Conversion or functional shift: Adding no affixes; simply using a word of one category as a word of another category. Examples: Noun-verb: comb, sand, knife, butter, referee, proposition,paper,bottle,vacation,can,verbs becoming nouns:guess,must,spy,to print out(a printout),to take over(a takeover) verbs become adjective:see through,stand up.adjectives becomes verbs:to dirty,to empty,to total, or the noun acrazy and a nasty.compound nouns:the ball park carpool,mastermind,microwave,quarterback.
8. Acronym formation: forming words from the initials of a group of words that designate one concept. Usually, but not always, capitalized. An acronym is pronounced as a word if the consonants and vowels line up in such a way as to make this possible, otherwise it is pronounced as a string of letter names. Examples: NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus), radar (radio detecting and ranging), NFL (National Football League), AFL-CIO (American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations)CD(compact disk)VCR(vidoe cassette recorder)laser,zip,snafu,MADD,WAR.ATM.PIN.
: adding a derivational affix to a word. Examples: abuser, refusal, untie, inspection, pre-cook.un-,mis-,pre-,ful-,-less,-ish, -ism,-ness words like unhappy, misrepresent,prejudge,joyful,careless,boyish,terrorism,sadness.